A sensor (English name: transducer/sensor) is a detection device that can sense the measured information and transform the sensed information into electrical signals or other required forms of information output according to certain rules, in order to meet the requirements of information transmission, processing, storage, display, recording, and control.
The existence and development of sensors have provided objects with senses such as touch, taste, and smell, making them come to life. Sensors are an extension of human facial features.
Sensors have the characteristics of miniaturization, digitization, intelligence, multifunctionality, systematization, and networking, making them the primary link for achieving automatic detection and control.
A new type of aluminum nitride sensor that can operate at high temperatures up to 900 ℃.
Sensors are generally composed of four parts: sensitive components, conversion components, conversion circuits, and auxiliary power supplies. The sensitive components directly sense the measured object and output physical quantity signals that have a certain relationship with the measured object; The conversion element converts the physical quantity signal output by the sensitive element into an electrical signal; The conversion circuit is responsible for amplifying and modulating the electrical signal output by the conversion element; Conversion components and conversion circuits generally require auxiliary power supply.
The function of sensors is often compared to the five major sensory organs in humans:
Photosensitive Sensors – Visual
Sound sensitive sensors – auditory
Gas Sensor – Olfactory Sense
Chemical Sensors – Taste
Pressure sensitive, temperature sensitive, fluid sensors – tactile
Classification of sensitive components:
Physics, based on physical effects such as force, heat, light, electricity, magnetism, and sound.
Chemistry, based on the principles of chemical reactions.
Biological, based on molecular recognition functions such as enzymes, antibodies, and hormones.
Usually, according to their basic sensing functions, they can be divided into ten categories: thermal sensitive elements, photosensitive elements, gas sensitive elements, force sensitive elements, magnetic sensitive elements, humidity sensitive elements, sound sensitive elements, radiation sensitive elements, color sensitive elements, and taste sensitive elements (some people have classified sensitive elements into 46 categories).
People must rely on sensory organs in order to obtain information from the outside world. However, relying solely on people’s own sensory organs is not enough to study natural phenomena and laws, as well as their functions in production activities. To adapt to this situation, sensors are needed. Therefore, it can be said that sensors are an extension of the human five senses, also known as the electrical five senses.
With the arrival of the new technological revolution, the world has entered the information age. In the process of utilizing information, the first thing to be solved is to obtain accurate and reliable information, and sensors are the main way and means to obtain information in the natural and production fields.
In modern industrial production, especially automated production processes, various sensors need to be used to monitor and control various parameters in the production process, so that the equipment can work in a normal or optimal state, and the product can achieve the best quality. Therefore, it can be said that without numerous excellent sensors, modern production would also lose its foundation.
In basic discipline research, sensors have a more prominent position. The development of modern science and technology has entered many new fields: for example, to observe the vast universe of thousands of light years at the macro level, to observe the particle world as small as fm at the micro level, to observe the evolution of celestial bodies lasting for hundreds of thousands of years vertically, and to observe instantaneous reactions as short as s. In addition, various extreme technological studies have emerged that play an important role in deepening material understanding, exploring new energy sources, new materials, etc., such as ultra-high temperature, ultra-low temperature, ultra-high pressure, ultra-high vacuum, ultra-strong magnetic field, ultra-weak magnetic field, etc. Obviously, it is impossible to obtain a large amount of information that cannot be directly obtained by human senses without suitable sensors. The obstacle to many basic scientific research lies first in the difficulty in obtaining object information, and the emergence of new mechanisms and highly sensitive detection sensors often leads to breakthroughs in this field. The development of some sensors is often a pioneer in the development of edge disciplines.
Sensors have already penetrated into a wide range of fields such as industrial production, space development, ocean exploration, environmental protection, resource investigation, medical diagnosis, bioengineering, and even cultural relic protection. It is no exaggeration to say that almost every modern project, from vast space to vast oceans, to various complex engineering systems, cannot do without various sensors.
It can be seen that the important role of sensor technology in developing the economy and promoting social progress is very obvious. Countries around the world attach great importance to the development of this field. I believe that in the near future, sensor technology will make a leap, reaching a new level commensurate with its important position.